LDAB-GPSR: Location PreDiction with Adaptive Beaconing – Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks


  • Ramzi Saifan The University of Jordan
  • Samer Abu-Zant
  • Sharhabeel H. Alnabelsi
  • Mohammed Hawa
  • Fahed Jubair




MANET, Routing, Greedy algorithms, adaptive beaconing, location prediction, geographic routing


In mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET), nodes are randomly distributed and move freely, and hence the network may face rapid and unexpected topological changes. In this paper, an improved greedy perimeter stateless routing protocol, called “LDAB-GPSR”, is proposed. LDAB-GPSR mainly focuses on maximizing the packet delivery ratio while minimizing the control overhead. In order to accomplish this, two techniques are introduced, the first one is the location prediction technique in which the greedy forwarding strategy is improved by choosing more stable routes for data forwarding. The second one is the adaptive beaconing technique in which the slow start algorithm is employed to adapt the beacon packet interval time based on the mobility of nodes and the data traffic load instead of using the periodic beaconing strategy. These two strategies together improve the overall performance of the GPSR routing protocol. The performance of the new proposed protocol is evaluated by carrying out several NS-2.35 simulation experiments. The simulation results show that LDAB-GPSR protocol outperforms the GPSR+Predict protocol in terms of packet delivery ratio, control traffic overhead, end to end delay, and throughput.  The ratios of enhancement approaches 40%.