A data hiding technique by mixing MFPVD and LSB substitution in a pixel


  • Gandharba Swain K L University




Steganography, PVD, MF PVD, PDH analysis, RS analysis, data hiding


Pixel difference range mismatch at sender and receiver is a main problem with pixel value differencing (PVD) steganography techniques. This paper proposes a mixed technique combining PVD and LSB to address the above problems. The PVD uses modulus function (MF) and multi-directional edges. It uses 2×3 size pixel blocks to exploit the edges in five directions. The first two LSBs of every pixel forms the lower bit plane (also called as remainder plane) and the remaining six MSBs form the higher bit plane (also called as quotient plane). LSB substitution is applied at remainder plane and PVD is applied at quotient plane. From the 2×3 size pixel block, a 2×3 quotient block is formulated. A quotient is obtained after dividing the pixel values by 4. Thus from the pixel block a quotient block is obtained. The central quotient in the quotient block is considered as reference value and five difference values with five neighboring quotients are calculated. Based on the average of these five difference values, the hiding capacity in all the five directions is decided. The remainder plane of central pixel acts like indicator, so that extraction can be done successfully from the five neighboring pixels at the time of extraction. The experimental results show the evidence that the proposed technique does not show the step effects, so will not be vulnerable to PDH analysis. Furthermore, it is also observed that the recorded hiding capacity value is larger than the existing techniques without decreasing the PSNR.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.itc.47.4.19593

Author Biography

Gandharba Swain, K L University

Dr. Gandharba Swain is working as a Professor in the Department of Computer Science & Engineering, K L University, Vaddeswaram, Andhra Pradesh, India. Previously he had worked at GMR Institute of Technology, Rajam, Andhra Pradesh, India and at IACR Engineering College, Rayagada, Odisha, India. He received B.Sc(Hons) degree from Berhampur University in 1995, MCA degree from VSS University of Technology (VSSUT), Burla, in 1999, M.Tech (CSE) degree from NIT, Rourkela, in 2004. He was awarded with PhD degree from SOA University, Bhubaneswar in 2014. He has more than 16 years of teaching experience and more than 6 years of research experience. He has authored one text book, published more than 50 research articles in international journals and conferences in the areas of Security and Digital Image Stegaography.